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Modern Civil.-1
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Protocols of Zion
Conclusion


Roman Empire

 

1. The Roman Empire

Rome accepts the Greek culture but it develops political institutions, legal institutions, and military technology to build an empire from Orient to Europe.
If you know about the Roman Empire, you can see that it is similar to the current situation in the United States.

a) The republic initial term (B.C. 509~B.C.264)


In the year 800 B.C., the Latin Romulus established the city of Rome.
By 700 B.C., the Etruia had invaded and ruled Rome.
The Republic of Rome was created after the fall of the Etruia dynasty in 509 B.C.

The Republic is a form of state in which a sovereign citizen selects a head of state with a certain term by direct or indirect election.
Two consuls of one year in office ruled with military, judicial and sacrificial powers:
In 450 B.C., a ten-member committee enacted Rome's first written law.

The Senate was the republic's best power agency, consisting of the chief of a powerful tribe.
The Senate ratified the comitia law, proposed laws, and advised the administrator.
They were also involved in religious affairs, and they were in charge of state finance.

The commoners set up comitia to protect their rights, and had tribune.
The tribune had the right to reject the Senate's decision.
Rome unifies Italy at this time, defeating the Erutrians, Celtics, and Samniums.

 

b) the republic medium term (B.C. 264~B.C. 133)

the Mediterranean before the Phoenicia War

general hannibal

Rome which unified Italy and Phoenicia which dominated the Mediterranean at the time, are confront in  Sicily, the center of the Mediterranean.
In the First Phoenicia War, Rome defeated Phoenicia the Navy and landed on the African coast.
Rome took the island of Sicily, Phoenicia paid for the war, and they signed a peace treaty.

When Phoenicia
established new empire in the region of Spain to regain the hegemony of the Mediterranean, Rome, which was concerned about it, caused the Second Phoenicia War.
The young general of Spain, Hannibal, takes over North Italy over the rough Alps by land to avoid the powerful Roman Navy.
B.C. In 217, in Etruria, Hannibal won the Roman army, but did not advance to Rome to supplement his troops and attacked southern Italy.

In the meantime, Rome restored its strength and drove Hannibal south, and Phoenicia's reinforcements were also defeated, finally Phoenicia withdrew from Italy.
Roman general Scipio conquered Spain in 206 B.C., defeating Hannibal in finally in 205 B.C., he receives the surrender of Phoenicia.
This deprived Phoenicia its warships and Mediterranean islands, and lost its own right to conduct war and diplomacy.

Meanwhile, Rome conquered Macedonia in the Greek region in 197 B.C., and won the war against Syria and occupied Asia Minor.
B.C. 151–146, Rome fought against the PhoeniciaMacedonia and Achaean allies, expanding its reach to the Balkans and Africa.
B.C. In 146, when Phoenicia
resisted the attack of Numidia, Rome attacked Phoenicia, destroying the city completely, and selling the prisoners as slaves.

Rome ruled the conquered province with a governor.
Rome was able to conquer the world because the Romans were loyal and the army was efficient.
Rome was not concentrated in one place with the balance of power: monarchy (consul), aristocracy (senior), and democracy (comitia).
Declaring war and signing a peace treaty was the right of comitia but the Senate deal with major political issues and colonial management.

The Comitia had the right to legislate independently, but law could not be passed if one of the ten tribunes refused to pass.
The Equites(knight class) was subcontracted by the state, laid roads, managed mines, and delivered to the army.
As the colony expanded, Rome became rich, but the Roman farmers fell as cheap agricultural products were imported.

The rich in Italy occupied the state land and bought the land of the poor farmers cheaply, managed a large farm, and ran the ranch as a slave, making a big money, but the farmers who lost the land flocked to the city.
The Romans admired Greek culture, learned Greek, accepted Greek literature, served Greek gods, and accepted skepticism.

 

c) The republic latter term (B.C. 133~31)

FORO ROMANO

Colosseum

When rich poor gab worse. In 133 BC. the tribune Tiberius Gracchus tried to limit the state land that individuals could occupy to 500 yugueras (1,212 m2) and distribute the remaining state land to the citizens.
When the Senate, which consists of rich and nobles, opposed the bill, it submitted to the Comitia, but it was frustrated by the veto of the noble tribune Marucus Octavius.

The Comitia strips Octavius of his tribune position and passes the bill.
The Senate flocked to the Comitia, killed Tiberius and suppressed the Comitia.
Tiberius' brother Gaius Gricus is trying to benefit citizens by increasing public income after becoming a tribune in 123 B.C.
He lost his tribune in election and tried to reform it by force in 123 B.C., but he lost his life in a riot.

Pompey was a general who suppressed the Iberian rebellion in B.C. 77, and Marucus Crassus was responsible for suppressing the slave rebellion. Each of them became a console in the 70th year.
Crassus used conspiracy and violence to take control of the regime, and the country was devastated.
In 63 B.C., a politician named Catilina attempted a coup, but it was suppressed by Cicero.

Pompey, who came to the East to win and return to Rome, dissolved the army and gave power, but the Senate refuses his request to distribute the land to the soldiers.
Julius Caesar, who returned from his governorship in Spain, became a console in 59 B.C. with his outstanding talent.

Caesar is in the console and takes control of the regime with trust from both Crassus and Pompey.
Three people have made a secret agreement and monopolized power, and Kiker tries to separate them but fails.
Caesar gained command of the Gaul army, Pompey gained command of Hispania, and Crassus attacked Parthia.

When Crassus died, Pompey and Caesar were confronted. When the Senate sided with Pompey, Caesar in Gaul rebelled and occupied Rome, and Pompey retreated to Greece.
Caesar chased Pompey to Greece and defeated Pompey, and Pompey, who fled to Egypt, was assassinated there.

Caesar monopolized power and conducted a one-man dictatorship, but he was assassinated by Burutus and Cassius in the Senate.
However, after this power was seized by Caesar's servant, Marcus Antonius, and the assassins fled.

Caesar's quantum Octavian cooperates with the Senate against Antony.
Octavian ruled the West, and Antony took control of the East and married Cleopatra, making Egypt a political and military base.
Octavian incites Antony to hand over Rome to Egypt, then attacks and defeats Antony and the Allies of Egypt in the Battle of Actium.

 

d) Monarchy the first half (B.C. 31~A.D. 139)

Emperor Augustus

Emperor nero

Roman Empire Area (A.D. 117)

Octavian became the first emperor to take full control of Rome.
The Senate delegated to him the rule of Hispania, Gaul and Syria, and granted him the title Augustus (honored man).
He initially held the consule position, but resigned in 23 B.C. and was authorized to convene and preside , the Senate.

The Senate gave him the authority of the professional console to have the authority of the provinces and the army.
He also became Maximus.
The Senate's powers were reduced because Augustus had the real power in military and finances.

The Senate sometimes held meetings and only formally approved the decisions already made.
Augustus has carried out public works such as road construction in Italy, stabilized finance and governance, and developed Italy as a whole.

The armies that pledged allegiance to Augustus consisted of Legion, the imperial Guards, and the Imperial Fleet.
The soldiers of Legion were mainly from the western colonies and became citizens when discharged.
Tiberius was a competent emperor, but Calicula was assassinated as a tyrant.

Claudius I (A.D. 41–54) advanced centralization, and annexed Britain.
Emperor Nero (A.D. 54–68) kills several people, including his family, burns the city of Rome, persecutes Christian for the first time, but commits suicide when rebellion occurs.

A.D. Hadrian, who came to power in 117–138, recruited the colonial garrisons themselves to strengthen the defense.

From Emperor Antoninus (A.D. 138–161), the Germans invaded, revolted, and he was killed in action while suppressing the Germans.
In the second century, the emperors deified their families and reached absolute monarchy, and they enacted laws directly without going through the Senate.

The extreme gap between rich and poor has resulted in materialism, and religions that are aimed at the afterlife have grown.
Philosophy has flourished in Stoic philosophy, and art is mainstream in realistic expression as a Roman.

 

 

2. Pompei

Pompei city

Road

Stadium

a mill

a water supply

pornograph

People quickly covered in volcanic ash


a man of petrified shape


Pompei, a tragic city buried in volcanic ash, was destroyed by the eruption of Vesuvius volcano in August 79 AD, and prosperity and pleasure were quickly destroyed.
At that time, Pompey was not only a center of agriculture and commerce, but also popular among Roman nobles as a summer resort.
Since Pompeii was destroyed in its heyday, many interesting things are found in the data that are being excavated.

At that time, volcanic ash erupted along with the earthquake accumulated nearly 1m.
Some of the citizens were fleeing to the suburbs, people fleeing from the house, but finally all of them were buried as the volcanic ash and lava erupted due to the rain that continued to come and coagulate, and the whole street became a steaming pot.

There are many remains and relics that can know the life and culture of the time.
First of all, if you look at the shape of ancient cities centered on the plaza and major roads, there are no different facilities from modern cities, including theaters, circular stadiums, city hall, gymnasium, sewers and baths, restaurants and public toilets.
The road is 7m wide and is paved with stones, and the sidewalk is on both sides, so you can get a glimpse of the prosperity of the time.

Betty's house, a wealthy merchant, is a wealthy house with a pool when you enter the entrance, and a safe and a bedroom on both sides.
There are brothels in many parts of the city, small rooms, and pornograph on the walls.
At that time, sex was so free that anyone could go to a brothel and sell their bodies and make money, and they were not guilty.


Crete, Pompeii, and Sodom were all rich and happy without God.
All of these places have something in common that has been destroyed by volcanic eruptions or earthquakes.
All other things in common were sex free, Sodom has many gays, Crete was so free that women were exposed to their hearts, and Pompeii has many brothels.

 

 

 

3. Persecution of Christianity by Rome

a) the reasons why Rome persecuted
Christianity


1. For Christians are atheists

Roman religion was polytheism based on Greek faith.
In principle, Roman religious policy recognized the local religion.
For this reason, Rome had all sorts of temples from all over the world.
Especially, all kinds of esotericism from the east such as Greece and Persia were popular and festivals were held for the gods.

However, the Christians refused to sacrifice the gods.
Christian
believed that God the Creator is the only one.
Therefore, Christians who refuse to worship all kinds of Roman gods were misunderstood as atheists.


2. Because they did not worship the deified emperor.

Of all sorts of gods, the Roman emperor was the son of the sun god and the object of worship.
But the Christians refused to worship the emperor, and they believed Jesus as the king of the kings.

Christians also believed that their citizenship was not in Rome, but in the country of Jesus to come in the future.
This was considered a plot to overthrow Rome and build a new kingdom.
And so, whenever political rebellions took place, Christians were identified as the forces behind them.

 

3. Christians was thought as immoral group.

Christians who were under surveillance and persecution in Rome could not worship open.
The place they chose was a secret place, Catacombbe, an underground tomb that the Romans were reluctant to get in.
The misunderstanding of Christians hiding in the catacombs was that Christians eat bodies in the graves.

 

b) Catacombe

Catacombe

Catacombe refers to an underground cemetery where early Christians gathered:
In ancient Roman law, the cemetery was supposed to be used outside the walls.
Christians usually bury their ancestors in abandoned mine or underground family cemetery
It also included the intention to emulate Christ Jesus buried in the stone tomb.

This underground cemetery of Christians is an important refuge during Christian persecution
The believers who fled here gather together and worship.
But then the Roman soldiers would come here.
There were about 30 catacombs around Rome.

 

c) The history of Christian persecution in Rome

1. Persecution of Emperor Nero (54-68);

The incident of the Great Fire in 64, when Emperor Nero was in office, became an unforgettable turning point in Christian history.
Nero began to persecute the Christians after turning the cause of the fire in Rome to Christians.
Suetonius described Christians as the "people of new and evil superstitions".
Tacitus says in his chronicles that Nero killed Christians to satisfy the mad atrocities.
Eusebius also said that Nero's "extreme madness" killed his mother, wife, and thousands of people.



2. Persecution by Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161–180)

Aurelius, the author of meditation and a representative of Stoic philosophy, showed a favorable tendency toward Christianity in first.
Later,
however, under the influence of flattery, he began to persecute Christians.
Christians were torn by the whip, bloodshed, and the flesh was revealed and the intestines burst out.
After all sorts of torture, they were thrown into the food of a fierce beast.
The intensity of persecution has become increasingly severe, but most Christians have kept their faith in all kinds of torture and persecution.

This persecution led to the martyrdom of a devout young man named Germanitus.
Despite the provincial governor's desperate persuasion, he was empowered by God's grace and overcome the natural fear of death in the human mind.
Germanicus was not hesitant at all, but became a ferocious beast's food, and finally gained freedom from this unjust generation.

 

3. Edict of Dessius and national persecution (249–251).

Under the Emperor Dessius, the most severe persecution happened.
In 250, Emperor Desius ordered local officials and administrators to oversee the sacrifice at the necessary places on the day, and issued a certificate of sacrifice to those who gave the sacrifice.
About  Desius' orders, christians had to choose compliance, compromise, rejection, and escape.
At this time, Roman Church bishop Cornelius, Jerusalem bishop
Alexander, and Andiok bishop Babylas were martyred.



4. Persecution of Emperor Diocletian (284–305);


Emperor Diocletian began persecution of the church under the influence of his mother, who was a pagan and hated Christianity.
Edicts were issued across the country, churches were destroyed, the Bible burned, the positions of believers were deprived, and priests were imprisoned.
During this time, a considerable number of Christians were martyred.

 

 

* word document for print: Roman Empiore

 

 


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